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The Standing on the Shoulders of Giants "Teach & Learn" Black History Curriculum​​

Specially designed for Parents, Teachers, Homeschool, or Independent Study, grades 5+

Where Black
History Lives!​

Unit 1: Ancient Africa - The Cradle of Civilization
(200,000 B.C. - 476 B.C.)

Unit 1: Class 12: Ancient Kemet (Egypt): The New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period (1550 B.C. – 712 B.C.) Part 3

Egypt in the Third Intermediate Period (1070–712 B.C.)     

People To Know
Pharaoh Amenhotep III, 18th Dynasty, Reign: June 1388 BC to December 1351 
Below is the text on statue above of Amenhotep III (State Hermitage Museum):

Son of Re beloved by him (Amenhotep, Ruler of Thebes)|, beloved by Sakhmet, Lady of the Limits of Places, given life. Young God, Lord of the Two Lands, (Nebmaatre)|, beloved by Sakhmet, Lady of the Limits of Places, given life.
At the death of Ramesses XI, the throne passed to Smendes, a northern relative of the High Priest of Amun. Smendes’ reign (ca. 1070–1044 B.C.) initiated some 350 years of politically divided rule and diffused power, known as the Third Intermediate Period. The Third Intermediate Period laid the foundation for many changes that are observable in art and culture throughout the first millennium. Though its details are still not fully clear, this period of Egyptian history can be divided into three general stages. During the first of these, Dynasty 21 (ca. 1070–945 B.C.), Egypt was governed by pharaohs ruling from Tanis in the eastern Delta and by the High Priests of Amun ruling from Thebes. Relations between the two centers of power were generally good.
 
The second stage began in 945 B.C., when the throne passed to a powerful family of Libyan descent, ruling in the eastern Delta. Egypt’s erstwhile western enemies now became its rulers for the next two centuries (Dynasty 22, ca. 945–712 B.C.). Despite their Libyan origin, these pharaohs ruled as native Egyptians. The first of them, Sheshonq I (ca. 945–924 B.C.), is the most important. He appears in the Bible under the name Shishak, the Egyptian ruler who sacked Jerusalem in Year 5 of the reign of Solomon’s son, Rehoboam.
 
Under Takelot II (ca. 850–825 B.C.), the control of Dynasty 22 began to weaken, and a new power center—now known as Dynasty 23 (ca. 818–712 B.C.)—arose in the eastern Delta. The two dynasties governed Egypt simultaneously for approximately ninety years, the final stage of the Third Intermediate Period. By the end of the eighth century B.C., Egypt had fragmented further, particularly in the north, where a host of small local rulers held sway: in the eastern Delta, Osorkon IV (ca. 730–712 B.C.) of Dynasty 22 and Iuput II (ca. 754–712 B.C.) of Dynasty 23; in the western Delta and Memphis, Tefnakht (ca. 724—717 B.C.) of Dynasty 24, ruling from Sais; in Hermopolis, a local kinglet named Namlot (ca. 740 B.C.); and at Heracleopolis, another local ruler, named Peftjaubast (ca. 740–725 B.C.).
 
Preoccupied with internal rivalries during the Third Intermediate Period, Egypt gradually lost its traditional control of Nubia, located to its south. About 760 B.C., an independent native dynasty began to rule Nubia, or Kush, from Napata in what is now the Sudan and extended its influence into southern Egypt. In 729 B.C., the Egyptian rulers Namlot and Tefnakht joined forces to extend their control farther into Upper Egypt. The Nubian king Piankhy perceived this as a threat to his independence and moved against the Egyptian coalition. His invasion proved successful, and the various Egyptian rulers submitted to his leadership at Memphis in 728 B.C. This event marked the inception of seventy-five years of Nubian rule in Egypt.
 
Source:
Allen, James, and Marsha Hill. “Egypt in the Third Intermediate Period (1070–712 B.C.).” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum(October 2004)

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