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The Standing on the Shoulders of Giants "Teach & Learn" Black History Curriculum​​

Specially designed for Parents, Teachers, Homeschool, or Independent Study, grades 5+

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Unit 1: Ancient Africa - The Cradle of Civilization
(200,000 B.C. - 476 B.C.)

Unit 1: Class 11: Ancient Kemet (Egypt): The New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period (1550 B.C. – 712 B.C.) Part 2

Pharaoh Amenhotep III & Queen Tiye

People To Know
Pharaoh Amenhotep III, 18th Dynasty, Reign: June 1388 BC to December 1351 
Below is the text on statue above of Amenhotep III (State Hermitage Museum):

Son of Re beloved by him (Amenhotep, Ruler of Thebes)|, beloved by Sakhmet, Lady of the Limits of Places, given life. Young God, Lord of the Two Lands, (Nebmaatre)|, beloved by Sakhmet, Lady of the Limits of Places, given life.
Amenhotep III (c. 1386-1353 BCE) was the ninth king of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. He is also known as Nebma’atre, Amenophis III, Amunhotep II, and Amana-Hatpa, all of which relate to the concept of the god Amun being satisfied or, as in the case of Nebma’atre, with the ideal of satisfied balance. He was the son of the pharaoh Tuthmosis IV and his lesser wife Mutemwiya, husband of Queen Tiye, father of Akhenaten, and grandfather of Tutankhamun and Ankhsenamun. His greatest contribution to Egyptian culture was in maintaining peace and prosperity, which enabled him to devote his time to the arts. Many of the most impressive structures of ancient Egypt were built under his reign and, through military campaigns, he not only strengthened the borders of his land but expanded them. He ruled Egypt with Tiye for 38 years until his death and was succeeded by Amenhotep IV, later known as Akhenaten.

Amenhotep was the son of Thutmosis IV (Menkheperure) and Queen Mutemwia. Amenhotep grew up at court with several brothers and sisters. We know that he had at least two brothers. Prince Amenemhat died young and was buried with his father in KV43. Prince Siatum was depicted with his tutor Meryre. Siatum is known to have had a daughter named Nebetia. Amenhotep also had at least four sisters: Amenemopet, Pyihia, Tiaa, and Tintamen.

Amenhotep is known to have had many wives. The most important of them all is undoubtedly Queen Tiye. Amenhotep and Tiye married when he just got to the throne and she is depicted on may monuments, and even had a temple in Sedeinga devoted to her.

Amenhotep and Tiye had seven children. They had two sons: Tuthmosis and Amenhotep. They also had five daughters: Sitamen, Iset, Henuttaneb, Nebetiah and Beketaten.

Tuthmosis was the eldest son and crown prince. He became a priest of Ptah in Memphis, but seems to have died somewhere around the 30th year of the reign of his father. Prince Amenhotep then became the heir to the throne. Amenhotep eventually took the throne as Amenhotep IV. He married Nefertiti, and after a couple of years on the throne he changed his name to Akhenaten.

On the walls of the Amen temple in Luxor we find the story of Amenhotep's supernatural conception, his birth and his coronation. The treatment is almost identical to the story told by Hatshepsut about her conception, birth and coronation. We see Queen Mutemwia visited by the god Amen, and conceiving a child. She is later assisted by the goddesses at the birth. These inscriptions are meant to show that Amenhotep was the divine son of the god Amen.

Amenhotep was probably still young when he came to the throne. His age is often estimated to be ca 12 years old when he ascended to the throne.

AMENHOTEP III’S OPULENT REIGN

Amenhotep’s father, Tuthmosis IV, left his son an empire of immense size, wealth, and power. The Egyptologist Zahi Hawass writes, “Amenhotep III was born into a world where Egypt reigned supreme. Its coffers were filled with gold, and its vassals bowed down before the mighty rulers of the Two Lands [Egypt]”. He was only twelve years old when he came to the throne and married Tiye in a royal ceremony. It is a significant aspect of Amenhotep’s relationship with his wife that, immediately after their marriage, she was elevated to the rank of Great Royal Wife, an honor which Amenhotep’s mother, Mutemwiya, was never accorded and which effectively meant that Tiye outranked the king’s mother in courtly matters.

His marriage completed, the king set about continuing the policies of his father and implementing new building programs throughout Egypt. He was a master of diplomacy, who placed other nations in his debt through lavish gifts of gold so that they would be inclined to bend to his wishes, which they invariably did. His generosity to friendly kings was well established, and he enjoyed profitable relationships with the surrounding nations. He was also known as a great hunter and sportsman and boasted in an inscription that “the total number of lions killed by His Majesty with his own arrows, from the first to the tenth year [of his reign] was 102 wild lions” (Nardo, 19). Further, Amenhotep III was an adept military leader who “probably fought, or directed his military commanders, in one campaign in Nubia and he had inscriptions made to commemorate that expedition” (Bunson, 18). 


Colossi of Memnon
Colossi of Memnon.  The twin statues depict Pharaoh Amenhotep III in a seated position, his hands resting on his knees and his gaze facing eastwards towards the river. They once stood at the entrance gate of Amenhotep's memorial temple, a massive construct built during the pharaoh's lifetime, where he was worshipped as a god-on-earth. Click for pictures and learn why they were once called the "Singing Statues." 

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Unit 1: Ancient Africa - The Cradle of Civilation
CLASS LIST

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UNIT 1: CLASS 1 - Ancient Africa: The Origin of Humanity, PART 1
UNIT 1: CLASS 2 - Ancient Africa: The Origin of Humanity, PART 2
UNIT 1: CLASS 3 - The Beginnings of Civilization 
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UNIT 1: CLASS 4 - Ancient Nubia/Kush (6000 B.C. – 1500) Part 1
UNIT 1: CLASS 5 - Ancient Nubia/Kush (6000 B.C. – 1500) Part 2
UNIT 1: CLASS 6 - The Whitening of Ancient Kemet/Egypt
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UNIT 1: CLASS 7 - Ancient Egypt: Predynastic Period & The Old Kingdom (10,500 B.C. – 2,181 B.C.)  Part 1
UNIT 1: CLASS 8 - Ancient Egypt: The Old Kingdom & First Intermediate Period (3150 B.C. – 2055 B.C.) Part 2
UNIT 1: CLASS 9 - Ancient Egypt: The Middle Kingdom & Second Intermediary Period (2055 B.C. – 1550 B.C.) 
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UNIT 1: CLASS 10 - Ancient Egypt: The New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period (1550 B.C. – 712 B.C.) Part 1
UNIT 1: CLASS 11 - Ancient Egypt: The New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period (1550 B.C. – 712 B.C.) Part 2
UNIT 1: CLASS 12 - Ancient Egypt: The New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period (1550 B.C. – 712 B.C.) Part 3
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UNIT 1: CLASS 13 - The Queen of Sheba & Solomon (10th Century B.C. – 955 B.C.)
UNIT 1: CLASS 14 - Ancient Egypt: The 25th Nubian Dynasty & Late Period (760 B.C. – 332 B.C.) 
UNIT 1: CLASS 15 - Ancient Egypt: Greco-Roman Period (332 B.C. – 476 B.C.) 
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UNIT 1: CLASS 16 - Hannibal Barca – Defender of Carthage (247 B.C. – 181/183 B.C.)
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