1. Title 1

The Standing on the Shoulders of Giants "Teach & Learn" Black History Curriculum​​

Specially designed for Parents, Teachers, Homeschool, or Independent Study, grades 5+

Where Black
History Lives!​

Unit 1: Ancient Africa - The Cradle of Civilation
(200,000 BC - 476 BC)

Unit 1: Class 16: Hannibal Barca – Defender of Carthage (247 B.C. – 181/183 B.C.)


Learning Objectives
After completing this lesson, students 
will be able to:

  • Discuss the story of Hannibal Barca and his legendary war against Rome.
  • Understand the causes and effects of the Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome.
  • Scrutinize the controversy surrounding Hannibal’s “race.” 
  • Analyze Hannibal’s military strategy and understand why he is considered a military genius.

Class Quiz!

From Hannibal Barca of Carthage, North Africa

1. Where is Carthage located? Have students point to it on a map

2. True or False? Carthage was originally established as a Phoenician colony?

3. True or False? The Phoenicians and Carthaginians were know as skilled sea merchant traders. 

4. Is there a picture or description of Hannibal available today?

5. What piece of evidence exists that lends support to the fact that Hannibal was of African   ancestry?

6. What caused the First Punic War? Who was the Carthaginian general in command during the    First Punic War?

7. How large was Hannibal’s army during the Second Punic War and how far did his army travel from Spain to the Alps?

8. What is a mercenary? Who were some of the most noted mercenaries Hannibal used to fight Rome?

9. What other European group did Hannibal have to fight off in route to Rome?

10. How much of his army did Hannibal lose crossing the Alps?

11. What was the result of the Second Punic War?

The Punic Wars

12. What two countries fought in the Punic Wars and how long did the wars last?

13. What are the dates for the First Punic War?

14. What was the cause(s) of the First Punic War?

15. Why did Carthage lose the First Punic War even though Rome had no navy at the time and Carthage had the better military general in Hamilcar Barca, Hannibal’s father?

16. What is the name of the Treaty that ended the First Punic War?

17. What are the dates of the Second Punic War?

18. What was the cause(s) of the Second Punic War?

19. After Hannibal learned that the Roman army was sent to capture him, what did he do? What animal did he use to aid his war efforts?

20. What was Quintus Fabius Maximus’s strategy to conquer Hannibal? Why didn’t it work?

21. What was the result of the Battle of Cannae?

22. How did the Romans respond to their huge lost at the Battle of Cannae?

23. What was the Battle of Zama? What was the result of the battle?

24. What were the consequences Carthage had to pay for losing the Second Punic War? What became of Hannibal after the Second Punic War?

25. What are the dates of the Third Punic War? What were the causes of the Third Punic War?

26. What was the result of the Third Punic War?

From The Price of Greed: Hannibal’s Betrayal by Carthage

27. What is the main reason Hannibal was unable to crush the Romans after he defeated them at the Battle of Cannae during the Second Punic War?

28. Unlike his father, who had to rely on mercenaries in the First Punic War, what groups fought for Hannibal and why?

29. What was Hannibal’s strategy after he realized that Carthage wasn’t going to send him any reinforcements?

30. Who were the first three Roman generals sent to defeat Hannibal? What was their strategy? Was it successful?

31. Why didn’t Hannibal continue to march on the city of Rome once he was at its doorsteps?

32. How did the Romans outmaneuver Hannibal once he was stalled in Italy?

From Documentary: Hannibal the Annihilator 

33. Who is Hannibal's sworn enemy?

34. What was the name of the wars between Carthage and Rome?
35. Who was Hannibal's father? What country did his father take over after the first Punic War?
36. What age was Hannibal when he became Commander of the entire Carthaginian Army?

37. Who was the Roman General that fought against Hannibal in the 2nd Punic War?

38. Who were the tribes that attacked Hannibal along the way to Rome?

From History Channel Portrays Hannibal as Black, White People Cry Foul Over ‘Historical Revisionism’ 

39. Why is Hannibal's race so important to modern historians? Would hannibal's "race" have been important in 220 b.c.e.? Why or why not?

40. What do you think? Based on the evidence provided, what "race" would you say Hannibal belonged to?

From Encyclopedia Britannica.com: Hannibal’s ethnicity and physical appearance 

41. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, what “race” was Hannibal?


42. According to the actors in the film, Africans were seen as unintelligent, except for who? Why would obviously racist film producers openly admit in a film that Hannibal Barca was African?

Unit 1: Class 16: Hannibal Barca – Defender of Carthage (247 B.C. – 181/183 B.C.)

Suggested Vocabulary
Randomly ask students the definition of one of the following words. Then ask them to put the word in a sentence. This is a great exercise for the beginning or end of a class, or if you finish a class early.

protracted - closely associated with or suggestive of something.

speculated - the state of being important or famous. 

millennium - a thousand years.

prominent - important; famous.

arbitrary - based on random choice or personal whim, rather than any reason or system.

decipher - convert (a text written in code, or a coded signal) into normal language.

reinvigorate - give new energy or strength to.
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