Unit 1: Ancient Africa - The Cradle of Civilization
(200,000 B.C. - 476 B.C.)

Unit 1: Class 8: Ancient Kemet (Egypt): The Old Kingdom & First Intermediate Period (3150 B.C. – 2055 B.C.)

Learning Objectives
After completing this lesson, students 
will be able to:

  • Discuss the early formation of ancient Kemet/Egypt, including the knowledge and technology that existed prior to its establishment.

  • Analyze the geography and climatic events that led to the mass migration of people to the Nile Valley – ancient Egypt in particular.

  • Identify the major pharaohs who united Upper and Lower Egypt, establishing the First Dynasty of ancient Kemet/Egypt.

  • Identify the major pyramids and monuments built during the Old Kingdom and the pharaohs and engineers responsible for their construction.

ClassOverview cont.

All of the most revered Gods had been established before the founding of the Old Kingdom. It is acknowledged that Aha or “the Scorpion King” and Menes, who are both credited for establishing the first dynasty, came from the South, and their capital and most sacred city was Abydos, is also in the South. From all accounts, the knowledge that went into the making of ancient Egypt was thousands of years in the making and came from the interior of the continent – not from outside of Africa. The formation of ancient Egypt represents the synthesis of the collective African genius. Ancient Egypt was not created by aliens or any people outside of Africa.

The Old Kingdom, also referred to as “the Age of Pyramids,” set the philosophical and spiritual foundation for ancient Egypt. It is during this period that the technique for constructing intricate, monolithic pyramids was perfected, and that the pantheon of Egyptian Gods was immortalized. It is during the Old Kingdom that the great pyramids at Saqqara, Meidum, Dahshur, and Giza were built. Despite earlier reports, it has been confirmed that the labor to construct the pyramids was paid and skilled – not slave labor. More importantly, the labor force was entirely African, a fact long ceded by Egyptologists. Amid this labor force were people like Imhotep, the world’s first multi-genius, and Hesy-Ra, "Chief of Dentists and Physicians," who both served under Pharaoh Djoser of the Third Dynasty. Yet many Egyptologists and other non-African historians have posited that ancient Egyptian civilization was the brainchild of a non-African, Mediterranean people. Yet there is no evidence of such a people in the historical record. And no people outside of Africa have ever been able to reproduce the knowledge required to build the ancient monuments, temples and artifacts of ancient Kemet. 

By the end of the Old Kingdom, all of the most important Egyptian/Kemetic Gods/Netcher had already been established and enshrined on the walls of the pyramids. These include the world’s first Holy Trinity (Isis, Osiris, and Horus, or Iset, Ausar, and Heru) as well as Thoth or Djehuti, the world’s first philosopher whom the very word “thought” is derived from. The foundations of math (especially geometry) and astronomy were manifested to construct the grand pyramids and temples as well as the world’s first calendar. Not to mention, the measurement of time was perfected to the hour (the word hour was derived from the word Horus). The Old Kingdom laid the spiritual foundation of ancient Kemet and set the standard of excellence that would enable Kemetic civilization to endure for nearly three millennia. 

Learning Tools
Teaching Guide
Study Guide
User's Guide
Class Evaluation