Unit 1: Ancient Africa - The Cradle of Civilization
(200,000 B.C. - 476 B.C.)

Unit 1: Class 9: Ancient Kemet (Egypt): The Middle Kingdom & Second Intermediary Period (2055 B.C. – 1650 B.C.) 

The Instruction of Pharaoh Amenemhat I to his son Pharaoh Senusret I, early 12th Dynasty (ca.1909 B.C.)

The Original Holy Trinity
  1. Managing Director
  2. Managing Director
  3. Managing Director
Scholars such as E.A. Wallis Budge have suggested possible connections or parallels of Osiris' resurrection story with those found in Christianity: "The Egyptians of every period in which they are known to us believed that Osiris was of divine origin, that he suffered death and mutilation at the hands of the powers of evil, that after a great struggle with these powers he rose again, that he became henceforth the king of the underworld and judge of the dead, and that because he had conquered death the righteous also might conquer death. In "Osiris the Christian", Egyptians found the prototype of Christ, and in the pictures and statues of Isis suckling her son Horus, they perceived the prototypes of the Virgin Mary and her child."
The text of the Instruction of Amememhat was preserved on the so-called Papyrus Millingen of the XVIIIth Dynasty, of which an integral copy was made by Peyron in 1843.

The papyrus was subsequently lost !

(...) : additions in English
[...] : restoration
{...} : uncertain or corrupt

Titles in bold were added. To facilitate future comments, the numbering is done anew. This translation is based on all mentioned translations, as well as on the hieroglyphic transcription of all available sources by Volten (1945).


01 Beginning of the instruction made by the Majesty of King Sehetepibre, son of Re, Amenemhat, the justified, as he spoke in a mission of truth,1 to his son the AlI-Lord.

address to Senusret

02 He said :
03 "Risen as god,2 hear what I teIl You, (so)
04 that You may rule the land, govern the shores, (and)
05 increase well-being !

beware of nobodies

06 Beware of subjects who are nobodies,
07 of whose plotting3 one is not aware.
08 Do not go near to them alone.
09 Trust not a brother, know not a friend, 
10 make no intimates, it is worthless.
11 When You lie down, guard your heart yourself.
12 For no man has adherents on the day of woe.

by doing good one does not avoid an attack

13 I gave to the beggar, I raised the orphan, 
14 I gave to those who were nothing, like to those who were something.
15 But he who ate my food raised opposition,
16 he whom I gave my hands, used them to assail me,4
17 wearers of my fine linen looked at me as if they were needy,5
18 those perfumed with my myrrh {poured water while wearing it.}6

remember what has happened 

19 You my living peers, my partners among men, 
20 make for me mourning such as has not been heard, 
21 for so great a combat had not yet been seen ! 
22 If one fights in the arena forgetful of the past, 
23 success will elude him who ignores what he should know.

the narrative of the assassination

24 It was after supper, night had come. I was taking an hour of rest, lying on my bed, for I was weary. As my heart began to follow sleep, weapons for my protection were turned against me, while I was like a snake of the desert. I awoke at the fighting, {came to myself}, 7 and found it was a combat of the guard. Had I quickly seized weapons in my hand, I would have made the cowards retreat. But no one is strong at night ; no one can fight alone ; no success is achieved without a helper. 

25 Thus bloodshed occurred while I was without You ; before the courtiers had heard I would hand over to You ; before I had sat with You so as to advise You.8 For I had not prepared for it, had not expected it, had not foreseen the failing of the servants ...

the exceptional nature of this murder

26 Had women (of the harem) ever marshaled troops ? 
27 Are rebels nurtured inside the palace ? 
28 {Or did destroyers break into the place ?}9
29 {(It is) a bad memory because of what these miserable people did.}10
30 No harm had come to me since my birth, (and)
31 no one equaled me as a doer of deeds. 

the confession of excellence

32 I journeyed to Yebu,11 I returned to the Delta. 
33 Having stood on the land's borders, I observed its interior.
34 I reached the borders of the strongholds ;
35 by my strength and my being. 

36 I was grain-maker, beloved of Nepri.12
37 Hapy 13 honored me on every field. 
38 None hungered in my years. 
39 None thirsted in them.

40 One sat because I acted and spoke of myself :
41 I had assigned everything to its place.
42 I subdued lions, I captured crocodiles, 
43 I repressed those of Wawat,14
44 I captured the Medjay,15
45 I made the Asiatics16 do the dog walk.

preparing his son

46 I built myself a house decked with gold,
47 its ceiling of lapis lazuli, 
48 walls of silver, floors of [acacia wood],
49 doors of copper, bolts of bronze.
50 The serfs (however) plotted against me.
51 Be prepared against this !
52 If You know this, then You are its Lord, You the All-Lord.

53 Behold, much hatred is in the streets. 
54 The wise says 'yes', the fool says 'no' (for)
55 he has not understood it, (as) his face is lacking (eyes),17
56 (that You) were my own tongue, Senusret my son,
57 when I (still) walked on my feet,
58 (that You) were my own heart, 
59 when my eyes (still) beheld You,
60 the child of a happy hour.18

concluding advise 

61 Behold, I made the beginning, You will tie the end.
62 I have landed by the dead,
63 (and) You wear the White Crown of a god's son.19
64 The seal is in its correct place, (and)
65 jubilation has started for You in the bark of Re.
66 Ascend to the throne for a government better than most,
67 not like mine ! 
68 Be courageous, raise your monuments, establish your strongholds, 
69 and beware of those You know,
70 for I do not wish them on the side of your Majesty."

The Original Holy Trinity
The family of Osiris. Osiris on a lapis lazuli pillar in the middle, flanked by Horus on the left and Isis on the right (Louvre, Paris)


Unit 1: Ancient Africa - The Cradle of Civilation

UNIT 1: CLASS 1 - Ancient Africa: The Origin of Humanity, PART 1
UNIT 1: CLASS 2 - Ancient Africa: The Origin of Humanity, PART 2
UNIT 1: CLASS 3 - The Beginnings of Civilization 
UNIT 1: CLASS 4 - Ancient Nubia/Kush (6000 B.C. – 1500) Part 1
UNIT 1: CLASS 5 - Ancient Nubia/Kush (6000 B.C. – 1500) Part 2
UNIT 1: CLASS 6 - The Whitening of Ancient Kemet/Egypt
UNIT 1: CLASS 7 - Ancient Egypt: Predynastic Period & The Old Kingdom (10,500 B.C. – 2,181 B.C.)  Part 1
UNIT 1: CLASS 8 - Ancient Egypt: The Old Kingdom & First Intermediate Period (3150 B.C. – 2055 B.C.) Part 2
UNIT 1: CLASS 9 - Ancient Egypt: The Middle Kingdom & Second Intermediary Period (2055 B.C. – 1550 B.C.) 
UNIT 1: CLASS 10 - Ancient Egypt: The New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period (1550 B.C. – 712 B.C.) Part 1
UNIT 1: CLASS 11 - Ancient Egypt: The New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period (1550 B.C. – 712 B.C.) Part 2
UNIT 1: CLASS 12 - Ancient Egypt: The New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period (1550 B.C. – 712 B.C.) Part 3
UNIT 1: CLASS 13 - The Queen of Sheba & Solomon (10th Century B.C. – 955 B.C.)
UNIT 1: CLASS 14 - Ancient Egypt: The 25th Nubian Dynasty & Late Period (760 B.C. – 332 B.C.) 
UNIT 1: CLASS 15 - Ancient Egypt: Greco-Roman Period (332 B.C. – 476 B.C.) 
UNIT 1: CLASS 16 - Hannibal Barca – Defender of Carthage (247 B.C. – 181/183 B.C.)